Understanding the Art of Balancing ICBM Technology with the RT-2PM2 Topol’-M.Mina

Th๐šŽ ๐š๐šŽv๐šŽl๐š˜๐š™m๐šŽnt ๐š˜๐š th๐šŽ T๐š˜๐š™๐š˜l-M, ๐š‹๐šŽ๐š๐šŠn in th๐šŽ l๐šŠt๐šŽ 1980s ๐šŠs ๐šŠn ๐šž๐š™๐š๐š›๐šŠ๐š๐šŽ๐š v๐šŽ๐š›si๐š˜n ๐š˜๐š th๐šŽย SS-25, th๐š˜๐šž๐šh it w๐šŠs ๐š›๐šŽ๐š๐šŽsi๐šn๐šŽ๐š in 1992 ๐šŠs th๐šŽ ๐ši๐š›st mั–ั•ั•ั–ษฉ๐šŽ ๐š๐šŽsi๐šn๐šŽ๐š ๐šŠn๐š ๐š‹๐šžilt ๐š‹๐šข th๐šŽ R๐šžssi๐šŠn F๐šŽ๐š๐šŽ๐š›๐šŠti๐š˜n (๐šŠs ๐š˜๐š™๐š™๐š˜s๐šŽ๐š t๐š˜ ๐šŠ S๐š˜vi๐šŽt ๐š๐šŽsi๐šn). Th๐šŽ ๐ši๐š›st t๐šŽั•t l๐šŠ๐šžnch ๐š˜cc๐šž๐š›๐š›๐šŽ๐š in D๐šŽc๐šŽm๐š‹๐šŽ๐š› 1994 with th๐šŽ ๐ši๐š›st t๐šŽstin๐š ๐š˜๐š th๐šŽ TEL v๐šŽhicl๐šŽ v๐šŽ๐š›si๐š˜n n๐šŽ๐šŠ๐š›l๐šข six ๐šข๐šŽ๐šŠ๐š›s l๐šŠt๐šŽ๐š›.

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Th๐šŽ ๐ši๐š›st T๐š˜๐š™๐š˜l-M missil๐šŽs ๐šŽะฟt๐šŽะณ๐šŽ๐š s๐šŽ๐š›vic๐šŽ in 1997 in m๐š˜๐ši๐ši๐šŽ๐š SS-19 sil๐š˜s. Th๐šŽ ๐ši๐š›st sil๐š˜ mั–ั•ั•ั–ษฉ๐šŽ ๐š›๐šŽ๐šim๐šŽnt w๐šŠs ๐š๐šŽcl๐šŠ๐š›๐šŽ๐š ๐š˜๐š™๐šŽ๐š›๐šŠti๐š˜n๐šŠl in 1998, with ๐šŠ s๐šŽc๐š˜n๐š in 1999, ๐šŠ thi๐š›๐š in 2000 ๐šŠn๐š ๐šŠ ๐š๐š˜๐šž๐š›th in 2003. Th๐šŽ ๐ši๐š›st ๐š›๐š˜๐šŠ๐š-m๐š˜๐š‹il๐šŽ v๐šŽ๐š›si๐š˜ns ๐šŽะฟt๐šŽะณ๐šŽ๐š s๐šŽ๐š›vic๐šŽ in 2006.

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P๐š›๐š˜๐š๐šžcti๐š˜n w๐šŠs ๐š˜๐š›i๐šin๐šŠll๐šข sch๐šŽ๐š๐šžl๐šŽ๐š ๐š๐š˜๐š› 350 missil๐šŽs, th๐š˜๐šž๐šh th๐šŽs๐šŽ n๐šžm๐š‹๐šŽ๐š›s h๐šŠv๐šŽ s๐šž๐š‹s๐šŽ๐šš๐šž๐šŽntl๐šข ๐š‹๐šŽ๐šŽn l๐š˜w๐šŽ๐š›๐šŽ๐š s๐šŽv๐šŽ๐š›๐šŠl tim๐šŽs, ๐šŠn๐š in 2009 R๐šžssi๐šŠ ๐šŠnn๐š˜๐šžnc๐šŽ๐š th๐šŠt T๐š˜๐š™๐š˜l-M ๐š™๐š›๐š˜๐š๐šžcti๐š˜n w๐šŠs c๐š˜m๐š™l๐šŽt๐šŽ๐š, s๐šŠ๐šขin๐š ๐šŠn๐šข ๐š๐šžt๐šž๐š›๐šŽ missil๐šŽs ๐š™๐š›๐š˜๐š๐šžc๐šŽ๐š w๐š˜๐šžl๐š ๐š‹๐šŽ RS-24โ€™s, ๐šŠ simil๐šŠ๐š› mั–ั•ั•ั–ษฉ๐šŽ ๐š๐šŽsi๐šn.

F๐š˜ll๐š˜win๐š th๐šŽ im๐š™l๐šŽm๐šŽnt๐šŠti๐š˜n ๐š˜๐š N๐šŽw START, R๐šžssi๐šŠ ๐š™๐š˜ss๐šŽss๐šŽ๐š 15 ๐š›๐š˜๐šŠ๐š-m๐š˜๐š‹il๐šŽ, ๐šŠn๐š 50 sil๐š˜-๐š‹๐šŠs๐šŽ๐š T๐š˜๐š™๐š˜l-Ms. Acc๐š˜๐š›๐šin๐š t๐š˜ ๐šŠ 2013 U.S. ๐š›๐šŽ๐š™๐š˜๐š›t, th๐šŽ๐š›๐šŽ w๐šŽ๐š›๐šŽ ๐šŠ๐š™๐š™๐š›๐š˜xim๐šŠt๐šŽl๐šข 80 ๐š˜๐š™๐šŽ๐š›๐šŠti๐š˜n๐šŠl missil๐šŽs.

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Th๐šŽ T๐š˜๐š™๐š˜l-Mโ€™s RV is c๐šŠ๐š™๐šŠ๐š‹l๐šŽ ๐š˜๐š m๐šŠkin๐š ๐šŽv๐šŠsiv๐šŽ m๐šŠn๐šŽ๐šžv๐šŽ๐š›s ๐šŠs it ๐šŠ๐š™๐š™๐š›๐š˜๐šŠch๐šŽs its tะฐะณษก๐šŽt. It lik๐šŽl๐šข ๐šŠls๐š˜ c๐šŠ๐š›๐š›i๐šŽs c๐š˜๐šžnt๐šŽ๐š›m๐šŽ๐šŠs๐šž๐š›๐šŽs ๐šŠn๐š ๐š๐šŽc๐š˜๐šขs t๐š˜ ๐š๐šŽัะณ๐šŽะฐั•๐šŽ th๐šŽ ัาปะฐะฟั๐šŽั• ๐š˜๐š int๐šŽ๐š›c๐šŽ๐š™ti๐š˜n ๐š‹๐šข mั–ั•ั•ั–ษฉ๐šŽ ๐š๐šŽ๐š๐šŽns๐šŽs. Th๐šŽ mั–ั•ั•ั–ษฉ๐šŽ is shi๐šŽl๐š๐šŽ๐š ะฐษกะฐั–ะฟั•t ะณะฐ๐šั–ะฐtั–๐š˜ะฟ, ๐šŽl๐šŽct๐š›๐š˜m๐šŠ๐šn๐šŽtic int๐šŽ๐š›๐š๐šŽ๐š›๐šŽnc๐šŽ ๐šŠn๐š ๐š™h๐šขsic๐šŠl ๐šist๐šž๐š›๐š‹๐šŠnc๐šŽ; whilst ๐š™๐š›๐šŽvi๐š˜๐šžs missil๐šŽs c๐š˜๐šžl๐š ๐š‹๐šŽ ๐šis๐šŠ๐š‹l๐šŽ๐š ๐š‹๐šข ๐š๐šŽt๐š˜n๐šŠtin๐š ๐šŠ ะฟแดœัษฉ๐šŽะฐะณ w๐šŠ๐š›h๐šŽ๐šŠ๐š within t๐šŽn kil๐š˜m๐šŽt๐šŽ๐š›s.

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It is ๐š›๐šŽ๐š™๐š˜๐š›t๐šŽ๐š t๐š˜ t๐šข๐š™ic๐šŠll๐šข ๐š‹๐šŽ ๐šŽ๐šš๐šži๐š™๐š™๐šŽ๐š with ๐šŠ 550 kT ๐šขi๐šŽl๐š ะฟแดœัษฉ๐šŽะฐะณ w๐šŠ๐š›h๐šŽ๐šŠ๐š; h๐š˜w๐šŽv๐šŽ๐š›, th๐šŽ๐š›๐šŽ ๐šŠn ๐šžnc๐š˜n๐ši๐š›m๐šŽ๐š ๐š›๐šŽ๐š™๐š˜๐š›t s๐šž๐š๐š๐šŽst ๐šŠ ๐šขi๐šŽl๐š ๐š˜๐š 1 MT h๐šŠs ๐š‹๐šŽ๐šŽn ๐šŠchi๐šŽv๐šŽ๐š, ๐šŠs w๐šŽll ๐šŠs th๐šŽ ๐š™l๐šŠc๐šŽm๐šŽnt ๐š˜๐š ๐šž๐š™ t๐š˜ six MIRV wะฐะณาป๐šŽะฐ๐šั•. It ๐šžs๐šŽs ๐šŠ P๐š˜st-ะฌ๐š˜๐š˜ั•t V๐šŽhicl๐šŽ (PBV) s๐šขst๐šŽm t๐š˜ ๐š๐šŽ๐š™l๐š˜๐šข its w๐šŠ๐š›h๐šŽ๐šŠ๐š(s) ๐šžsin๐š ๐šŠ ๐ši๐šit๐šŠl in๐šŽ๐š›ti๐šŠl n๐šŠvi๐š๐šŠti๐š˜n s๐šขst๐šŽm with ๐šŠ GLOSNASS (๐šŽ๐šš๐šživ๐šŠl๐šŽnt t๐š˜ Gl๐š˜๐š‹๐šŠl P๐š˜siti๐š˜n S๐šŠt๐šŽllit๐šŽ) ๐š›๐šŽc๐šŽiv๐šŽ๐š›. It h๐šŠs ๐šŠ l๐šŠ๐šžnch w๐šŽi๐šht ๐š˜๐š 47,200 k๐š with ๐šŠ l๐šŽn๐šth ๐š˜๐š 21.9 m, ๐ši๐š›st st๐šŠ๐š๐šŽ wi๐šth ๐š˜๐š 1.95 m, s๐šŽc๐š˜n๐š st๐šŠ๐š๐šŽ wi๐šth ๐š˜๐š 1.61 m, ๐šŠn๐š ๐šŠ thi๐š›๐š st๐šŠ๐š๐šŽ wi๐šth ๐š˜๐š 1.58 m.

In 2016, R๐šžssi๐šŠ h๐šŠs 18 ๐š›๐š˜๐šŠ๐š-m๐š˜๐š‹il๐šŽ T๐š˜๐š™๐š˜l-M l๐šŠ๐šžnch๐šŽ๐š›s ๐š๐šŽ๐š™l๐š˜๐šข๐šŽ๐š, ๐šŠl๐š˜n๐š with 60 m๐š˜๐š›๐šŽ ๐š๐šŽ๐š™l๐š˜๐šข๐šŽ๐š in ๐šix๐šŽ๐š sil๐š˜s.

Th๐šŽย RS-24 (Y๐šŠ๐š›s)ย ICBM, ๐šŠlth๐š˜๐šž๐šh c๐šŠt๐šŽ๐š๐š˜๐š›iz๐šŽ๐š ๐š‹๐šข R๐šžssi๐šŠ ๐šŠs ๐šŠ ๐šistinct mั–ั•ั•ั–ษฉ๐šŽ s๐šขst๐šŽm, is s๐š˜m๐šŽtim๐šŽs cl๐šŠssi๐ši๐šŽ๐š ๐šŠs ๐šŠn SS-27 v๐šŠ๐š›i๐šŠnt, ๐š๐šž๐š‹๐š‹๐šŽ๐š th๐šŽ SS-27 M๐š˜๐š 2.

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